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Instructions to Contributors

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Phytomorphology is a quarterly published by the International Society of Plant Morphologists (ISPM).  The Journal publishes original research articles in all areas of plant sciences with special emphasis on morphology in its widest sense.  However, repetitive/additive type of research (eg. merely because the taxon's embryology had not been studied so far or merely reporting in vitro induction of callus/somatic embryos/shoot buds in a taxon) is not necessarily acceptable.


Manuscripts are considered from only the Members of ISPM.  Authors may send their MS to the Editor in Delhi or to a Member of the Editorial Board who represents the author's broad research area.


The maximal length of the article is restricted to 10 printed pages of Phytomorphology including no more than three plates of illustrations; 1 page of Phytomorphology accommodates nearly 600 words.  Additional pages will be charged to authors.


Reviews  on significant topics and research articles from specialists are invited from time to time.


Manuscripts be  typed in  English and  double  spaced  throughout  on  ca 21 cm  wide x 28 cm long (8" x 11") paper leaving at least 2.5 cm (1") margin on all sides.  Original and one copy should be submitted.  Only refereed, revised/accepted MS should accompany a computer floppy (3") of the MS in WordPerfect (5.1), or WordStar (3.3), or Microsoft Word.

The following shall be the layout for the manuscripts :

Page 1 is Title Page.  It should carry

(i) a concise title which indicates the important  aspects of the research

(ii) author's affiliations, e-mail address, and Fax No.

(iii) an abridged running title comprising no more than 30 characters

(iv) names and full postal addresses of two or three referees (optional)

 (v) footnote No. 1 which  reads  MS  received :  00 month's name and year

(vi) footnote No. 2 to denote the Author for correspondence, and

(vii) any acknowledgement as an unnumbered footnote.


Page 2 shall contain in sequence the title, but not the names of authors and their affiliations (to facilitate a more objective refereeing); abstract, keywords, and abbreviations.


The Abstract shall be just one paragraph in English (not exceeding 500 words) and should give the most salient points of observations and discussion.  To merely state that ... has been studied or ... method has been used is not acceptable.  No abbreviations be used in the abstract.


Three or four Keywords be listed in strict alphabetical order.  No term from the title be repeated as a keyword.


The Abbreviations used in the text be listed in strict alphabetical order.  The abbreviation and its corresponding expansion be separated by an en dash with one space on either side.  No period is inserted between the letters in most of the abbreviations. e.g. BA - 6-benzyladenine, Kn - kinetin.


Introduction should be direct and clearly justify why the research was undertaken.  `There has been no earlier work on taxon x, and hence the present work' is not an acceptable justification.


Materials and Methods : Methods used should be so explicit that they could be repeated without errors.  Taxonomic names of the materials studied should be italicized; the taxonomic authority be appended to the name.


Observations : The style for headings, subheadings, tables, footnotes, legends and literature citation should strictly conform to the format in the latest issue of Phytomorphology.  SI units of measurements should be used.  Some common abbreviations used: hr for hour(s), min for minute(s), sec for second(s), yr for year, mo for month(s), wk for week(s), DNA, RNA.  Numbers one to nine should be spelt out (except when referring to units of measurement and range of values) and those beyond nine should be in numerals (eg. 10, 11, 12 and so on), but  spelt  out at  the  beginning of a sentence.  Latin terms (eg. ab initio, et al., ex situ, in vitro) in vogue in English are not italicized.  Concentrations of chemical substances should preferably be in molarity.


Quantitative data should be tabulated, and data that can be read from the table should not be repeated in the text and vice versa.


Multiple references cited within parentheses shall be chronological, and separated by commas only.


discussion should point out the significance of the most important findings in relation to contemporary knowledge, and not merely repeat the observations.


literature cited : References be listed in strict alphabetical order of the surnames of the first authors, and then of the second authors, and so on.  The following are examples of the format :

Corner EJH 1953  The Durian theory extended - I, Phytomorphology 3 465-476

Fisher DB & Wang N 1993  A kinetic and autoradiographic analysis of [14C] sucrose import by           developing wheat grains, Pl. Physiol. 101 391-398

Kobayashi S, Ohgawara T, Fujiwara K & Oiyama I 1991  Analysis of cytoplasmic genomes in somatic           hybrids between navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) and "Murcott" tangor, Theor. Appl. Genet.           82 6-10

Mani MS 1973  Plant Galls of India (MacMillan : New Delhi, India)

Rowley JR 1964  Formation of the pore in pollen of Poa annua, In Pollen Physiology and Fertilization           pp. 59-69 ed HF Linskens (North Holland Publ. Co. : Amsterdam, The Netherlands)


Abbreviations of titles of journals should conform to those in the latest edition of the World List of Scientific Periodicals  eds P Brown & GB Stratton (Butterworths, London).


tables must be numbered in Arabic numerals followed by an en dash (-) and a concise caption in capital letters.  Each table must have a top line and a bottom line; all abbreviations/ symbols, and notations used in the Table be explained as unnumbered footnotes within the table.  Each table be typed on a separate page numbered in continuation with the text. No vertical lines be used.


footnotes : Footnotes in the text should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, and typed on separate pages which are numbered in continuation with the text. 


illustrations : Individual photographs, graphs, and line drawings should be presented as closely assembled plates, and  the plates are numbered consecutively as Fig. 1,2,3 and are referred so in the text and legend, and not as Plate 1,2,3 ...; individual figures in each plate should be labelled as A,B,C (omit alphabets I, 1 and O) in the right hand lower corner.  Both in the text and in the legend the figures shall  be referred to as Fig. 1A,B or 2A-C, or Figs 1A, 2E, 3C.


Descriptive labels in individual figures should be preferably not abbreviated and be done in lower case in a size  appropriate for  final  reduction to page size (width 15 cm and length 19.5 cm).  All labelling should be done leaving 5 mm space from the contiguous margins of the figure.  Lettering should be done with stencils or Letteraset of appropriate size to withstand reduction during reproduction.  For magnification a scale bar should be inscribed preferably in the left lower corner of each figure in the plate, or if all the figures in the plate are of the same magnification, only one scale bar be inscribed in a suitable location on the plate.  No label or scale bar be affixed on the figure.


Line drawings, histograms and graphs drawn in black indelible ink (inkjet drawings tend to suffer reproduction) should be mounted close to one another for page width (15 cm) reproduction, leaving enough space for printing the legends at the bottom of the plate. 


halftone plates : Only sharp, high contrast prints from original negatives, suitable for reproduction by scanning should be submitted.  In assembling the figures into a plate, no space or only a hair space be left between adjacent figures; irregularly trimmed and mounted photographs shall not be accepted.


Unless the authors specify on the reverse of the plate that colour reproduction is required, coloured halftones will be reproduced in black and white only.  The authors shall defray the charges for colour reproduction.


Two sets of all illustrations should be submitted with the MS.


The legends (explanation to figures) should be concise and typed on a separate page numbered in continuation of the text.  For format the latest issue of Phytomorphology be consulted.


To facilitate a speedy processing of the manuscripts the authors are urged to follow the format in every detail.  Upon receipt, the editorial office will scrutinize the manuscript for format; if the manuscript falls short of the prescribed format, the authors will be asked to prepare their MS according to the format of Phytomorphology and resubmit.


Page proofs without Figures will be mailed to authors; corrected page proofs must be returned to the Editor within 48 hr from receipt, by the fastest service.  Changes involving resetting are not allowed, unless the authors agree to pay extra charge.


offprints : No gratis reprints shall be supplied.  Reprint requirement, in multiples of 50, should be specified while returning the corrected pageproof to the Editor.

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